[Used in many documents but the original author is unknown at this time]

To Whom These Presents Shall Come; Greetings; Take Notice:

1. That, prior to 1938, all U.S. Supreme Court Decisions were based upon what is termed: "Public Law" or that system of law that was controlled by Constitutional limitation. After 1938, all U.S. Supreme Court Decisions are based on "Public Policy" concerning commercial transactions made under the "Negotiable Instrument Law," as a result of the U.S. Bankruptcy as declared by President Roosevelt on March 9, 1933 and codified at 12 U.S.C.A. 95a. and by Executive Orders. This bankruptcy caused the change from "Public Law" to "Private Commercial Law" and was recognized by the Supreme Court in Erie v. Tompkins, (1938). After that case, all the procedures of Law were officially blended with procedures of Equity.

2. That, the Negotiable Instruments Law is a branch of the "International Law Merchant," which is now known as the "Uniform Commercial Code," (UCC) that was 'drafted' and made uniform, and "adopted in whole or substantially by all states." Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition - page 1531. Thus the several states were and are bound into commercial agreements to the federal United States under the Uniform Commercial Code.

3. That, the several (now 50) States accepted the "benefits" of federal grants offered by the Federal United States as the "consideration" of a commercial agreement between themselves. Under the agreement the States (Conference of Governors, March 6, 1933) pledged their full faith and credit and agreed to obey the dictates of Congress, and assume their portion of the National Debt, collected as "your fair share," as an example, in the nature of the unlawful income tax, wherein the IRS operates and collects such 'taxes' under the same UCC.

4. That, this system of Negotiable paper has bound all corporate entities (cities, municipalities, counties, etc.) of government together to the process/system of the Commercial Venue of Commercial Law as expressed and exercised within the Commercial Lien Process. This nationwide Commercial "bond" also altered the original (law) status of the Courts to nothing more than "administrative tribunals" merely administering the bankruptcy (private policy) of debt collection for the Creditors.

5. That, by and through the bankruptcy, the UCC, and other acts, Congress in failing to uphold its constitutional duty to provide a lawful medium of exchange (i.e., "money" backed by silver and gold, or minted coin pursuant to Article 1, section 8, clause 5) have by these various "Acts" created an abundance of this new type of money called commercial credit money to circulate within the Legislative democracy called the United States...of which "they" are not bound by Constitutional law and limitation.

6. That, the Commercial Law Venue, compelled upon the people a forced "benefit" of "limited liability for the payment of debt" by the "use" of federal reserve notes (debt instruments) wherein "YOUR" debts are only discharged, (not paid) in the form of interest-bearing negotiable instruments (federal reserve notes). "There is a distinction between a debt discharged and one paid. When discharged the debt still exists, though divested of its character as a legal obligation.." Stanek v. White, 215 NWR 781 (1927). Federal reserve notes are only evidence of debt owed to the Federal Reserve Bank and Federal Reserve Notes are a commercial lien on the Federal Reserve Bank.

7. That, since 1933, by the acts of the Bankruptcy and the UCC, the Law has been tainted, or "colored," (i.e., color of law) as it were, because the commercial law is operated in conjunction with the Negotiable Instruments Law, wherein the Federal Government by and through the Bankers, can/have declared that a 'piece of paper' has and represents value. Albeit that there is no substance (gold or silver) backing the 'piece of paper,' which the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in it's publication "Modern Money Mechanics," page 3, has in fact declared the use of these debt instruments (federal reserve notes) a "confidence" game. The substance of the Law (property) (i.e., gold, silver, etc.) has been removed, like the substance that is the basis of money, accordingly, LAW like MONEY becomes a fiction, make-believe! Therefore, in the U.S.A., by and through the UCC, all contracts, agreements, (implied, or otherwise, etc.), applications, permits, etc. where the "colorable" consideration (federal reserve notes) was passed in those 'contracts,' etc., all such contracts are then also "colored" and are not genuine, for no lawful consideration (gold or silver) was paid by either party to the contract to, by Law, pass both the "possession and the property" to the lawful Buyer. See - Bouvier's Dict. of Law, 1839, "TITLE," definition #5. "The lawful coin of the United States will pass the property along with the possession."

8. That, today, all our "courts" (sic) sit as Non-Constitutional-Non-Article III-Legislative Tribunals administering the bankruptcy through 'their' statutes which are in reality "commercial obligations" for the BENEFIT OR PRIVILEGE OF DISCHARGING YOUR DEBTS WITH THE LIMITED LIABILITY OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE MONOPOLY 'COLORABLE' MONEY NOTES!

9. That, under the current "colorable" legal system, the de-facto (we just do it) legislature has created "colorable" rights called privileges, imposes duties, lays down rules of conduct, and the legislative tribunals declare the same as "rights." These privileges are granted and given upon the peoples' voluntary act of asking "permission," then upon providing any colorable consideration (payment = discharge) the people then come under the administrative jurisdiction of Commercial Law.

10. That, today, in AMERICA, everyone, all governments included, are statutory law merchants dealing in negotiable paper (instruments) under the UCC for the limited liability for the discharge of debts, wherein a debt remains (fraud) and nothing else! The so-called "judges" are operating only a commercial tribunal to administer their "corporate" regulations concerning all financial transactions...both voluntary and those compelled.

11. That, ALL DEBTS are satisfied by one or both of two ways, a payment, or a promise to pay. Every payment is by substance, and every promise to pay is accomplished by a currency or paper which is technically known as commercial lien. The satisfaction of the debt by providing substance is called "paying the debt." The satisfaction of the debt by a written or printed promise to pay the debt is called "discharging the debt." All debts are "paid" by substance. All debts are only "discharged" by CURRENCY, POCKET MONEY NOTES, OR OTHER COMMERCIAL LIENS ( Negotiable Instruments, i.e., Commercial Lien Security/Asset, i.e., UCC 1 Asset).

12. That, all paper money consists of NOTES which declare a debt or obligation and which promise or demand payment. All such evidences of debt or obligations are technically known as COMMERCIAL LIENS. Such 'notes' includes currency, for example, federal reserve notes, checks, drafts, conditional checks, notes of exchange (paper money/instruments between banks).

13. That, a Federal Reserve note is a commercial lien on the Federal Reserve Bank. A personal check is a commercial lien on the bank account of the maker of the check (cheque). A draft is a check (cheque) with a conditional agreement printed above the place of endorsement on the backside of the draft.. A "note" of exchange is a commercial lien between the banks consisting of one bank demanding payment (discharge) from another bank. A personal check (cheque), while passing between banks, as a note of exchange, is a commercial lien.

14. That, bank accounts are backed (supported) either by substance money or by paper money, or by both. The substance money is called collateral. The paper money can be currency (for example, paper money notes), a loan of credit from the bank, or checks or other paper money as such, are commercial liens, received from other sources. Therefore the "property" declared/pledged or claimed to secure the obligation, and damages, is the collateral by and through the Commercial Lien process, which establishes (creates) the credit called commercial credit money.

15. That, valid "credit" currency (commercial lien) can be established by making a valid claim of debt (based on a damage or injury) by an affidavit in the form of a 'private security agreement' (and other related documents) and by allowing the lien to mature in three (3) months (90 days) into an accounts receivable (under commercial law) by the failure of the lien debtor to contest the 'agreement/lien' by answering or rebutting, by his affidavit, on a point for point basis.

16. That, a lien must contain 1) the names of the party/parties, claimants, and debtors. 2) an affidavit stating the events which created the obligation. 3) a ledger giving a one-to one correspondence between events and their values. 4) a list of property pledged or claimed to secure the payment (discharge) of the obligation, and 5) any evidence or exhibits in support of the claims made against the debtor.

17. That, the primary method of establishing a COMMERCIAL LIEN currency/paper/ negotiable instrument is to combine, 1) a promise to perform. 2) a claim of breach/damage /injury/fraud, etc., and 3) a three month (90 day) default to challenge or rebut the claim/lien on said point for point basis.

18. That, Commercial Lien/value/currency can be in the form of a bank check (cheque), a draft, a UCC 1 Security, and its partial assignments... that pass, and are accepted, or circulate 'as' credit money.